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Padecer de Trastorno de Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH), no debe ser un impedimento al momento de viajar con nuestros pequeños, a cualquier destino soñado en el mundo. Así lo dio a conocer el Dr. Eduardo Rafael Hernández González, Pediatra y Terapeuta de la Conducta Infantil, con quien Clase Turista Venezuela conversó para indagar sobre esas consideraciones que deben tener en cuenta los padres, al momento de trasladarse de un lugar a otro con sus retoños. Pero ante de estas recomendaciones, debemos definir qué es el TDAH.

De acuerdo a Hernández, es un trastorno neurobiológico que se exterioriza en alrededor del 5% de la población escolar y se caracteriza por inatención, hiperactividad e impulsividad, presentes en el infante por lo menos durante 6 meses y en varios ambientes (escuela, casa y social). Asimismo, indica que estos síntomas pueden ser tratados de una manera médica, conductual, cognitivo-conductual y apoyo psicopedagógico, bajo estricta supervisión de un profesional de la salud, quien será el encargado de llevar el caso correspondiente al TDAH. Según el doctor “el éxito del tratamiento del TDAH depende del compromiso que asuman los padres y de la permanente interacción de éstos con los especialistas en el área”.

Pero ¿qué debo saber si deseo viajar con niños o niñas que padezcan de TDHA? A continuación unos valiosos tips o sugerencias, que servirán de mucho antes, durante o después de emprender el trayecto.

Del 1 al 10 ¿qué tan complicado resulta viajar con un niño que padezca de TDAH? ¿Por qué?

Prefiero no hablar de complicación y  mencionar que la dificultad o complejidad de viajar con un niño con TDAH, dependerá de varios factores, algunos propios de todo niño (como la edad, el grado de desarrollo evolutivo, el estado de salud, las conductas aprendidas, las horas del viaje, los compañeros de viaje) y otros factores propios de TDAH, tales como: si el niño está medicado o no, si está en control por terapia de conducta, si los padres y familiares están sensibilizados e informados sobre el TDAH.

Al momento de viajar con un niño que tenga esta condición ¿recomienda hacerlo vía terrestre, marítima o aérea? ¿Por qué?

Esto va a depender del destino, no pienso exista mucha diferencia, salvo el tiempo del viaje y las condiciones del mismo. La ventaja del viaje terrestre, es que se pueden hacer paradas, en las cuales los niños se estiren un poco, caminen, se distraigan, coman, y esto contribuye a mejorar su conducta.

¿Qué debe tener en cuenta un padre al momento de viajar con su hijo (a) en avión, en carro propio, transporte público o en barco?

Hay que tomar en cuenta, que todo niño se aburre de un viaje largo, en caso de avión o transporte público debemos considerar que vamos a compartir el espacio con otras personas que muy probablemente desconozcan lo que es el TDAH y les podría causar incomodidad si el niño se comporta de manera inadecuada.

¿Qué objetos o indumentarias deben ser indispensable en el equipaje del pequeño con TDAH? (Alimentos, juguetes, libros, vestimenta, etc)

A nivel de alimentos recomiendo llevar agua, frutas no peladas y galletas. Asimismo, sugiero garantizar la diversión y pasar las horas de ocio, a través de las tablets, películas y libros para pintar. En el caso de los niños con TDAH medicados, indispensable no olvidarse de la medicación y cumplir el tratamiento a cabalidad. De igual manera, es necesario recordar que los nuevos tratamientos del TDAH indican que deben ser tomados todos los días de la semana y del año, sin parar en las vacaciones.

Existen 3 tipos de TDAH, el tipo predominantemente desatento, el hiperactivo/impulsivo y combinado ¿Qué destinos turísticos recomiendan para niños que presenten cada una de estas condiciones y por qué?

Como expresé anteriormente, todo va a depender de cuan controlado esté el pequeño y si presenta o no trastornos asociados. La única diferencia entre los tres subtipos de TDAH, sería para el inatento, con lo cual debido a su conducta dispersa y falta de atención debemos ejercer un mayor control para evitar que se pierda o tenga accidentes. En el caso de los otros subtipos es muy importante mantenerlos a la vista, en caso de ir a la playa o piscina, ya que algunos de ellos por su impulsividad, no miden el peligro y podrían sufrir accidentes.

¿Puede un papá o una mamá viajar solo (a) con su pequeño que tenga TDAH? ¿Por qué?

Perfectamente un padre solo puede y debe viajar con su hijo con TDAH, siguiendo las recomendaciones que hemos dado. Y sobre todo lo que siempre insisto en mi consulta: los padres tienen que tener paciencia, paciencia y  más paciencia. Además es necesario y esto forma parte de la terapia de conducta, que los padres deben reforzar positivamente las conductas adecuadas de los niños y evitar en lo posible utilizar la sanción.

¿Existe una condición especial que deba presentar los hoteles o posadas donde se hospedará el pequeño con sus padres?

Esta pregunta es muy interesante, los hoteles deberían ofrecer condiciones ambientales seguras para todos los niños, además de menús para niños, actividades adecuadas para cada edad y en caso de tener piscinas (tiene que haber una para niños) y playas, contar con personal de salvavidas.

¿Tiene alguna recomendación adicional que deba realizarle a los padres, antes, durante y después de un viaje?

Simplemente utilizar el sentido común, comprender que la seguridad y cuidado de los niños es responsabilidad de los padres y adultos significativos. En la medida de lo posible establecer horarios, organizar actividades y seguir con la medicación.

Así como éstos, otras suelen ser las recomendaciones que puede sugerirle el Dr. Eduardo Rafael Hernández González, Pediatra y Terapeuta de la Conducta Infantil, quien también atiende casos de trastornos de conducta, manejo de emociones, duelo, divorcio de los padres, problemas escolares, adolescentes, entre otros. Su consultorio está ubicado en la Clínica Bello Campo en Caracas y puede contactarlo a través del 0212-2650108 y 0212-2634111. También puede seguirlo en su blog http://terapiadelaconductainfantil.blogspot.com/

(Por Joselina Rodríguez / Foto: Web)

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